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¡Precio rebajado! Production of biofuels for transport in Colombia. An assessment through sustainability tools Ver más grande

Production of biofuels for transport in Colombia. An assessment through sustainability tools

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Autor: Carlos Ariel Ramírez Triana
Editorial: Politécnico Grancolombiano
Edición: Primera, 2017
Formato: Libro
Rústica, 17x24 cm
431 páginas
Peso: 1.010 Kg
ISBN: 9789588721583

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Reseña. Production of biofuels for transport in Colombia. An assessment through sustainability tools

Bioenergy has emerged as a potentially sustainable alternative to the use of fossil fuels for transport and industrial uses. Developing nations, such as Colombia, can seize the advantages of modernizing rural areas by using cleaner energy and having more economic opportunities with bioenergy initiatives, provided the trade—offs between fiber, food, feed and fuel can be managed. This Thesis examines the bioenergy program now under way in Colombia, where comparative advantages (shared with other tropical countries) in production of sugar cane and palm oil are being built on. While the technologies associated with use of these feedstocks are well known, nevertheless their scaling up in a country like Colombia poses considerable environmental, social, economic and business challenges.
 
The thesis poses two fundamental questions based on current Colombian conditions, namely (1) can the Colombian biofuel industry produce bioethanol and biodiesel under sustainable guidelines; and (2) to what extent is it possible to expand energy crops for biofuels production purposes without jeopardizing sustainability goals? A sustainability approach based on recognized techniques such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) allows for a comprehensive social, economic and environmental analysis of the whole cradle—to—grave progress of the bioenergy value chain. An original LCA analysis is conducted for the Colombian bioenergy sector, with results indicating that considerable savings in GHG emissions are achieved while producing sustainable and competitive bioenergy products. Nevertheless expansion of sugarcane and palm oil crops is possible but constrained by biophysical, legal, ecological and socio—economic conditions, established to safeguard sustainable production. Utilising Geographic Information Systems (GIS) some maps were created which clarify the potential for bioenergy expansion in Colombia. The Thesis thereby engages with the bioenergy capabilities of Colombia, and drawing on the literature from other tropical and Latin American countries, provides original estimates of the country's biopotential as well as needed policy settings to bring Colombia to its full capacity.
 
To sum up, this document argues that sustainable production and use of biofuels is feasible and would meet expected market demands over time.

Contenido. Production of biofuels for transport in Colombia. An assessment through sustainability tools

Abstract
Acknowledgments
 
1. Introductory chapter: bioenergy, sustainability and Colombia
1.1 Bioenergy and sustainability: general overview  
1.1.1 Bioenergy situation in the global energy scenario  
1.1.2 Bioenergy/biofuels production  
1.2 Sustainable development and energy  
1.2.1 Biomass production and sustainability  
1.3 Life Cycle assessment (LCA) importance  
1.4 Colombia: country, energy needs, and bioenergy industry  
1.4.1 General Information  
1.4.2 Energy Information  
1.4.3 Biofuels in Colombia  
1.5 Conclusions and general comments  
 
2. Biofuels in the world and the latin america (LAC) region
2.1 Policies and regulation for biofuels implementation at a global level
2.1.1 Main regulations  
2.1.2 Trends in biofuel policies and regulation in Latin American and Caribbean countries  
2.1.3 International trade protocols
2.1.4 Conclusions
 
3 Environmental problems in Colombia and their relationship with bioenergy production
3.1 Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem base
3.1.1 Geographic biodiversity
3.1.2 Issues related with ecosystem diversity
3.1.3 Diversity of species and their problems  
3.2 Land: degradation, pollution and inappropriate use  
3.2.1 Conflict over land use  
3.2.2 Land degradation  
3.2.3 Soil contamination  
3.3 Water pollution and inappropriate use  
3.3.1 Water supply: related issues  
3.3.2 Water demand: related issues  
3.3.3 Water pollution in Colombia
3.4 Air pollution  
3.4.1 Air pollution in the World and in Colombia
3.4.2 Sources of air pollution and affected sectors in Colombia
3.4.3 Consequences of air pollution in Colombia  
3.4.4 Air management in Colombia and their problems  
3.5 Climate change and climate variability
3.5.1 Climate change and climate variability  
3.5.2 Causes and forces of the Climate Change in Colombia and in
3.5.3 Effects and consequences of climate change in the World and
3.5.4 Policy actions to tackle CC in the World and Colombia and
3.6 Deterioration of the environmental quality of the human habitat
3.7 Conclusions  
 
4. Biofuel costs and price formation
4.1 Biofuel production costs  
4.1.1 Palm oil biodiesel cost  
4.1.2 Sugarcane—based ethanol
4.2 Conclusions  
 
5. Biofuel value chains and contractual relationships
5.1 Feedstock production and commercialization
5.1.1 Land Use in Colombia and its relationship with bioenergy
5.1.2 Production of palm oil
5.1.3 Sugarcane production  
5.2 Agro-industrial transformations of feedstock
5.2.1 Transformation of palm fruit into crude vegetable oil  
5.2.2 Transformation of crude palm oil into biodiesel  
5.2.3 Transformation of sugarcane and its apparent consumption  
5.2.4 Transformation of sugarcane into ethanol  
5.3 Distribution and commercialization  
5.4 The consumer sector  
5.4.1 Projected consumption of biodiesel  
5.4.2 Projected ethanol consumption
5.4.3 Current biofuel consumption  
 
6. Life cycle analysis — environmental study
6.1 Goal
6.1.1 Methodology of LCA
6.1.2 Scope  
6.1.3 Information for the inventory  
6.1.4 Assessment of the environmental impact  
6.1.5 Interpretation the World
6.1.6 Limitations of the study  
6.2 Inventory analysis
6.2.1 Sugarcane crop
6.2.2 Sugarcane processing plant (ingenio) and ethanol production their main obstacles  
6.2.3 Palm oil extraction and production of biodiesel
6.2.4 Transport to the service station
6.2.5 Transport of palm oil Biodiesel to California  
6.2.6 Use of fuels in vehicles  
6.2.7 Fossil fuels  
6.2.8 Electricity production  
6.3 Impacts Evaluation  
6.3.1 Fossil fuels  
6.3.2 Sugarcane—based ethanol
6.3.3 Palm oil biodiesel
6.3.4 Indirect land use changes (iLUC)
6.3.5 Blending options and exports to California  
6.3.6 Comparison of Colombian biofuels with some other biofuels
6.4 Discussion and conclusions  
6.4.1 Sugarcane-based ethanol
6.4.2 Palm oil biodiesel
6.4.3 Final conclusions
 
7. Bawl value chains and contractual relationships
7.1 Aim of the study  
7.2 Methodology  
7.2.1 Conceptual homework
7.2.2 Scope  
7.2.3 Limitations of this study
7.3 Biophysical aptitude  
7.3.1 Climatic factors  
7.3.2 Agronomic factors  
7.3.3 Agronomic suitability  
7.3.4 Biophysical aptitude  
7.3.3 Potential productivity
7.4 Legal restriction
7.5 Ecologic limitations
7.5.1 Greenhouse gases (GHC’s) emissions
7.5.2 Water shortage
7.5.3 Biodiversity
7.6 Socio-economic criteria
7.6.1 Access to processing facilities    
7.4.2 Access in market  
7.6.3 Access to road network  
7.6.4 Safety  
7.7 Discussion and final minas  
7.7.1 Palm oil  
7.7.2 Sugar cane  
7.7.3 Stakeholder’s engagement: contrast between the expansion potential in this study and former plans  
7.7.4 Conclusion
 
8. General conclusions
 
9. Appendix
9.1 Ban I. Cassava-bum! ethanol innovative mien  
9.2 Box 2. US-Colombia biofuels trade through a FTA: A temporality obstructed possibility  
9.3 Box 3. Eviction processes: Resent history in Colombia
9.4 Endpoint and midpoint indicators  
9.5 wasteson land (supreme)  
9.6 Description of the stages in the sugar production process in the sugar mdl (inane)  
9.7 Transportation distances per every 100 tons of sugarcane
9.8 Emissions per 1 kg of bagasse combustion and per may 100 tons of sugarcane (kg unless indicated otherwise)  
9.9 Description of the ethanol manufacture process  
9.10 Warn TITACTIMIC mass balance  
9.11 Mass Balance for compost stage  
9.12 Agrochemicals employed in different areas of the palm of crop (kg/kg FFB)  
9.13 Description of the Palm oil process  
9.14 Air emissions as product of the combustion of I MJ of fiber, I MJ of shells per each 100 tom of FFB (kg unless indicated otherwise)
9.15 Waste waters treatment  
9.16 Renault  
9.17 Surface extension of the carbon zones (km2), types of land use by vegetation zones in Colombia  
9.18 Map of natural potential vegetation
9.19 Parma of bawls production in Colombia beyond first generation biofuels
Glosary